In an advance in determining the function of environmental agents in causing cancer, scientists today described development of a long-sought way to use biopsy samples from cancer patients to check on human exposure to substances that damage the genetic material DNA in ways that can cause cancer.
Diabetes is a general disease characterized with chronic high blood sugar. Diabetes can damage the kidneys in many different ways. These can damage all the structures of the kidneys. And Diabetic Nephropathy is a complication of general capillaries of Diabetes. Once diabetics have continuous proteinura, the disease is irreversible and will develop into end-stage Kidney Failure. Diabetic Nephropathy has become the main cause for death.
Diet is an important role for the patients to avoid the complications, and relieve the disease condition. At the same time, a proper treatment is likewise crucial. Experts in Shijiazhuang Kidney Disease Hospital recommend that Diabetic Nephropathy patients should choose treatments that can treat the disease from the disease root, that is repair the kidney damage, so as to improve the kidney function fundamentally. At present, there are three ways to treat Diabetic Nephropathy. First, traditional western medicine treatment. Second, combination of Chinese medicine and western medicine, with Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy to gradually recover the kidney function. Third, in our hospital, Shijiazhuang Kidney Disease Hospital, we primarily focus on repairing the damaged intrinsic cells, recover their original structure and function, with the combination of Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotheray and Stem Cell Transplant.
Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Overload?
Their report on the method, which taps into a treasure trove of health information in biopsy samples of patients, was a member of the 246th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS).
Turesky and Yun now are checking FFPE samples for DNA adducts associated with cigarette smoking, cooked meats and air pollution.
Heading Down The Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Rabbit Hole
DNA adducts are a measurement of internal exposure to environmental and endogenous genotoxicants and are useful for risk assessment. Unfortunately, in molecular epidemiologic studies, the measure of DNA adducts is frequently precluded by the unavailability of fresh tissue. In contrast, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues are often accessible and represent a rich and largely untapped source for DNA adduct biomarker research. FFPE tissue hasn’t been employed for quantitative measurement of DNA adducts because of the technical challenges in retrieval of high quality DNA that is fully digestible by nucleases. We report here that DNA adducts of aristolochic acids (AAs) can be measured in FFPE tissues at a degree of sensitivity comparable to freshly frozen tissue. AAs are nephrotoxic and carcinogenic compounds found in Aristolochia plant species, many of whom have been used worldwide for medicinal remedies. AAs are involved in the etiology of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). 8-Methoxy-6-nitro-phenanthro-[3, 4-d]-1, 3-dioxolo-5-carboxylic acid (AA-I) is an important component of Aristolochia herbs and a potent human urothelial carcinogen. We established a method to quantitatively retrieve the aristolactam-DNA adduct 7-(deoxyadenosin-N6>-yl) aristolactam I (dA-AL-I) from FFPE tissue. Adducts were measured, using ultra performance liquid chromatography/multistage scan mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS>n >), in liver and kidney tissues of mice exposed to AA-I, at doses ranging from 0.001 to 1 mg/kg body weight. DA-AL-I was then measured in 10 µm thick tissue-sections of FFPE kidney from patients with upper urinary tract cancers. DA-AL-I adduct levels in FFPE were similar to those levels measured in fresh frozen samples. The limit of quantification of dA-AL-I was 3 adducts per 109 DNA bases per 3 µg of DNA. The ability to retrospectively analyze FFPE tissues for DNA adducts may provide clues to the source of human cancers for which an environmental cause is suspected.